Using a vibro-tactile display for enhanced collision perception and presence

Proceedings of the ACM symposium on Virtual reality software and technology - VRST '04 (2004), pp. 89-96, doi: 10.1145/1077534.1077551
Experiments
Tasks
Findings

Does a vibro-tactile display help users feel higher presence?

Variables and Constants

Constants

Auditory response to collision

System Info

Displays
Input Hardware
  • tracking system - 3 polhemus fastrak 6dof trackers (one for view direction on hmd and two others for arm position, attached on hands)
Software
None

Custom-built vibration system called the POS.T Wear, using 16-20 motors at 4 levels of vibration intensities.

Participant Info

The participants were screened for extreme or very low immersive tendency (using a form of the Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire), had an average age of 24.4, and had modest amounts of experience with virtual environments or 3D computer games.

Total # Age Range Gender Balance
16 -

The participants were moved automatically through a virtual rectangular tunnel with four parts at a constant speed. Users controlled their arm movements in order to avoid collision with various obstacles.

Interaction and Environment

Interface

Users could move their arms (as they were tracked) and look around, but not control movement otherwise. They stopped moving for a few seconds if a collision occurred.

The virtual tunnel consisted of four parts. The first was made of stone and had stone pillars that moved horizontally and vertically. The second was made of wood and had barrels arranged at equal intervals along the path. The third consisted of vines hanging from the ceiling. The fourth was made of metal and had metal balls moving in arbitrary directions and speeds.

Dimensionality Scale Density Visual Realism
3D Medium Medium High
Metrics

  1. There was a significant direct effect of haptics (on/off) on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users reported higher presence via the questionnaire for all three questions for the vibration feedback condition compared to the no feedback condition.

    Specificity: Somewhat general

Which of the three vibration feedback implementations results in the highest presence felt by the user?

Variables

    Haptic Fidelity
  • haptic quality - sinusoidal vibration feedback model, generic model with saltation, generic model with 3d sound
System Info

Displays
Input Hardware
  • tracking system - 3 polhemus fastrak 6dof trackers (one for view direction on hmd and two others for arm position, attached on hands)
Software
None

Custom-built vibration system called the POS.T Wear, using 16-20 motors at 4 levels of vibration intensities. Microsoft DirectX DirectSound for 3D sound.

Participant Info

The participants were screened for extreme or very low immersive tendency (using a form of the Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire), had an average age of 24.4, and had modest amounts of experience with virtual environments or 3D computer games.

Total # Age Range Gender Balance
16 -

The participants were moved automatically through a virtual rectangular tunnel with four parts at a constant speed. Users controlled their arm movements in order to avoid collision with various obstacles.

Interaction and Environment

Interface

Users could move their arms (as they were tracked) and look around, but not control movement otherwise. They stopped moving for a few seconds if a collision occurred.

The virtual tunnel consisted of four parts. The first was made of stone and had stone pillars that moved horizontally and vertically. The second was made of wood and had barrels arranged at equal intervals along the path. The third consisted of vines hanging from the ceiling. The fourth was made of metal and had metal balls moving in arbitrary directions and speeds.

Dimensionality Scale Density Visual Realism
3D Medium Medium High
Metrics

  1. There was a significant interaction between spatial audio (on/off) and haptic quality on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Both saltation and multimodality (adding in 3D sound) individually increased the users' feelings of presence.

    Specificity: Somewhat specific

  2. There was a significant interaction between spatial audio (on/off) and haptic quality on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    The vibration feedback model, 3D sound, and both together allowed the user to better classify vibration patterns for different materials.

    Specificity: Somewhat specific

  3. There was a significant interaction between spatial audio (on/off) and haptic quality on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Saltation and multimodality (including 3D sound) individually caused the users to rate the perception of collision as more realistic.

    Specificity: Somewhat specific

  4. There was a significant interaction between spatial audio (on/off) and haptic quality on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Saltation and multimodality (with 3D sound) both individually increased the perception of the accuracy of collision positioning.

    Specificity: Somewhat specific

  5. There was a significant inverse effect of haptic quality on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    The vibration feedback model decreased the perception of the accuracy of collision positioning.

    Specificity: Somewhat specific