Effects of haptic feedback, stereoscopy, and image resolution on performance and presence in remote navigation

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (2008), pp. 701-717, doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.05.001
Experiments
Tasks
Findings

What are the effects of haptic feedback, stereoscopy, and image resolution on task performance and presence in a tele-navigation system?

Variables and Constants

Constants

User distance from screen: 56 cm.

System Info

Displays
  • monitor - 21" crt monitor viewed through stereo shutter glasses
Input Hardware
  • haptic - vnvnet 4d4m s series force-feedback device (similar to phantom) for 3d input and force feedback
Software
None

ActivMedia Pionee 3-DX mobile robot (equipped with 16 ultrasonic transducer sensors, one stereo camera, and one dummy head microphone); 3 Point Grey DragonFly cameras; 2 Panasonic WM-61A microphones; ; 1 control PC; 1 notebook PC on the robot; CrystalEyes stereo shutter glasses

Participant Info

17 participants had prior driving experience; 8 had experience in using force-feedback devices; 16 had experience with stereoscopic glasses; 11 had participated in other presence experiments in the same lab.

Total # Age Range Gender Balance
24 18 - 33

Users navigated a robot from a start position through two other positions and back to the starting position while minimizing collisions with walls and cylinders in the enviornment.

Interaction and Environment

Interface

The user controlled the robot by moving the force-feedback device's pen, which also relayed force back to the user made up of an environmental force and a collision-preventing force. The environmental force was based on repulsive forces associated with obstacles detected by the sonar modules. The collision-preventing foce was based on the robot's possible movements (angular and directional) without collision. The user performed this task once for each of the 8 combinations of variables (haptics, stereoscopy, image resolution).

The environment was actually the real world that the robot existed in, displayed remotely to the user on their monitor. There were both walls and 13 cylindrical obstacles that were able to be seen over because the cameras on the robot were mounted higher than the obstacles were tall. The start/finish position was changed for each trial to reduce learning bias.

Dimensionality Scale Density Visual Realism
3D Small High High
Metrics

  • presence - 5-question questionnaire (each question on a scale from 0-100)
  • time - navigation time from start to finish
  • errors - number of total collisions, collisions while moving forward, collisions while turning, and collisions while moving backwards
  1. There was a significant interaction between stereoscopy and haptics (on/off) on errors for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users made fewer errors (collisions) with both the haptics and the stereo condition than without those conditions.

    Specificity: Somewhat general

  2. There was a significant direct effect of stereoscopy on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users made fewer errors (collisions) in the stereo condition than in the mono condition.

  3. There was a significant direct effect of haptics (on/off) on errors for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users made fewer errors (collisions) in the haptics condition than in the no haptics condition.

    Specificity: Somewhat general

  4. There was a significant direct effect of haptics (on/off) on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users felt more present in the haptics condition than in the no haptics condition.

    Specificity: Somewhat general

  5. There was a significant direct effect of stereoscopy on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users felt more present in the stereo condition than in the mono condition.

    Specificity: Somewhat general

  6. There was a significant direct effect of resolution (number of pixels) on presence for a travel - maneuvering task.

    Users felt more present in the higher resolution condition than in the lower resolution condition.

    Specificity: Somewhat general