Effects of field of view on presence, enjoyment, memory, and simulator sickness in a virtual environment

Proceedings IEEE Virtual Reality 2002 (2002), pp. 164-171, doi: 10.1109/VR.2002.996519
Experiments
Tasks
Findings

How does varying FOR affect presence, enjoyment, memory and simulator sickness?

Variables and Constants

Constants

Majority of components of fidelity including stereo, driving simulator, audio quality, virtual environment, display resolution, brightness, and size were all constant.

System Info

Displays
  • surround screen display - the displays are 3 projectors projecting on to three 230 x 175 cm screens. the screens were angled into a flatter u shape, allowing for a maximum of 220 degrees horizontal for. participants wore cystaleyes stereo glasses, active stereoscopic glasses.
Input Hardware
None
Software

Participant Info

The participants reported having normal or corrected vision. No participant reported having "a history of auditory disturbance, balance disorders, back problems, or high susceptibility to motion sickness. " Participants came from a Human Interface Technology Lab, so one can assume some level of technical proficiency. The paper gave no additional details.

Total # Age Range Gender Balance
10 20 - 31

Participants were automatically driven in a pre-defined path in the virtual environment. The environment had continuous roll oscillation with the path to make the experience more compelling.

Environment

Each path lasted 120 seconds. Crayoland is a cartoony VE with trees, flowers, and a cabin. In addition to evaluating simulator sickness, presence felt, they evaluated enjoyment and memorization. For the purposes of this input, "user preference" is matched to enjoyment.

Dimensionality Scale Density Visual Realism
3D Medium Not reported Low
Metrics

  • user task perception - enjoyment was the more precise rating
  • presence - e^2i questionnaire was developed to assess engagement, enjoyment and immersion
  • learning - e^2i questionnaire was developed to assess engagement, enjoyment and immersion
  • cybersickness - ssq questionnaire
  1. There was a significant direct effect of field of regard (for) on presence for a passive experience of the ve task.

    Higher levels of FOR led to higher feeling of presence for a passive driving simulator task.

    Specificity: Neither

  2. There was a significant direct effect of field of regard (for) on user task perception for a passive experience of the ve task.

    Higher levels of FOR led to higher levels of enjoyment for passive driving simulator tasks.

    Specificity: Neither

  3. There was a significant direct effect of field of regard (for) on cybersickness for a passive experience of the ve task.

    Higher levels of FOR led to higher levels of reported cybersickness for passive driving simulator tasks.

    Specificity: Neither